The company is a fundamental institution in the functioning of any economic system, where people meet their needs through the division of labor, cooperative production, and the exchange of goods and services. A firm is a type of business organization that allows two or more people to operate a company together under the guise of a joint venture. Members will contribute personal assets in accordance with the terms of the company's incorporation document. Each member of the firm's corporate entity is fully responsible for the company's future success. In addition to the definition of the business entity of the company, we will also address its characteristics, requirements, types, benefits, and disadvantages.
Business theory refers to the microeconomic approach devised in neoclassical economics that each company operates for profit. Companies determine the price and demand of the product in the market and make an optimal allocation of resources to increase their net profits. Signature Theory comprises several economic theories that explain and predict the nature of the firm, including its structure, relationship to the market, behavior, and its very existence. Businesses can have a single branch or multiple business centers, but all locations must have the same Employer Identification Number (EIN) with the IRS to be considered the same company. The main difference between a firm and a sole proprietorship is that a sole proprietorship does not usually count as a company in terms of business.
In microeconomics, business theory tries to explain why companies exist, why they operate and produce the way they do, and how they are structured. Company theory states that companies exist to maximize profits; however, this theory changes as the economic market changes. On the other hand, a firm generally excludes sole proprietorship; it generally refers to a for-profit company managed by two or more partners who provide professional services, such as a law firm. Smith explained that a manufacturing company used a more intense form of division of labor than could be coordinated through market exchange. We often use the word “firm” when referring to a company that provides a service, such as a law firm or graphic design firm.
Therefore, a company that is a sole proprietorship requires the personal liability of the owner, while a company that is a corporation protects its shareholders from any liability greater than the amount they paid for their shares in the company. Academics have debated how companies can make more money and how big they need to be to make money; however, their theory is quite simple and easy to understand without making it too complicated.